Kinship-Based Societies;Roman citizenship

Kinship-based societies are social organizations that have existed from the beginning of human history. The basic level is the family relationship, whereby contact with immediate family is important for reasons of survival. Contemporary society has considerably disregarded the need for support in survival. Kinship has grown into an essential division of learning in anthropology. This is primarily because of its intimate connection with nearly all social levels.

Roman Citizenship.

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Citizenship in the era of ancient Rome was regarded as privileged legal and political status, which could only be awarded to free-born persons with respect to governance, property, and laws. Possession of this citizenship was beloved by both barbarians and Romans alike. In addition to granting security from the death sentence, a Roman citizen could enjoy the right to cast a vote (jus suffragium), the right to create contracts (jus commercium), and the right to bond in a legal marriage (jus conubium). A roman citizen also enjoyed the right to vie for public or civil office (Jus honorum), the right to defend one’s level of citizenship in the event of relocation to a polis of equivalent status (Jus migrationis), among other rights. The significance of Roman citizenship was that it was a prerogative of a few. It was also employed as a means of foreign control and policy. Political allies and colonies would be offered a trivial variety of Roman citizenship since there were several graduated echelons of legal rights and citizenship.Confucian Ideals. Humanism is central in Confucianism.  Confucian ideals are founded on varying degrees of honesty. An uncomplicated way to comprehend Confucian ideals is to study the world by employing the common sense of humanity. In reality, the principal function and foundation of Confucianism is an ethical perspective to be practiced by every member of society. The central role of Confucianism is reformist, spiritual and idealistic. It generated a high model for family interactions, whereby members were supposed to treat one another with respect, love, and thoughtfulness. It prescribed a patronizing model for the state whereby the ruler was supposed to be a father to the people.

Pax Romana.

The Pax Romana started in 27 BC with the rise to power of Augustus, which signified the closing stages of the Roman Republic as well as, its last civil wars. This period of tranquility lasted until the demise of Marcus Aurelius in 180 AD. The word pax is Latin and translates as peace, accord, or treaty. One significant consequence of the Pax Romana was the affluence it brought into the empire. It also contributed to the spreading of Christianity which became easier by the safer travel. It extremely increased communication and trade by granting safer infrastructure across Europe as well as increasingly safe sea routes. During this era, there was extremely little military expansion within the empire.

The mandate from Heaven.

The Mandate of Heaven refers to a traditional philosophical concept of the Chinese concerning the legality of rulers. It is comparable to the European theory of the kings’ divine right, in that the two concepts endeavored to legitimize rule as of divine endorsement. However, in contrast to the kings’ divine right, the Mandate of Heaven is predictable on the character of the ruler under consideration. The Mandate of Heaven hypothesizes that heaven would bless the power of an impartial ruler, as defined in the five Confucian relations. On the other hand, heaven would disapprove of a tyrannical ruler and would remove its mandate, thus leading to the removal from power of the tyrannical ruler. Consequently, the Mandate of Heaven would transfer power to the ruler who would be best suited to govern.

Shang Yang

Shang Yang, also known as Gongsun Yang, is among the most influential and controversial statesmen in the ancient epoch. Confucian orthodoxy depicts him as an exceedingly brutal as well as a central character in the pantheon of legalist philosophers. Anti-Confucians and liberals portray Shang Yang as a principled advocate of the rule of law and a barricade against authoritarianism. Academics doubt that the anthologies of writings that bear his name contain any of Shang Yang’s own writings, but similar to other philosophers in China, it is probably a consequence of his influence. Shang Yang’s philosophical influence originates principally from the Hanfeizi recognition of him with the conjecture of ding fa and yi min. Much of the disagreement concerns the subject of these concepts and, in result, the moral importance of Shang Yang.Shang Yang’s extensive political strategy would be summarized as substituting restructured structures for amorphous traditions and organic families that typify Confucian feudalism.

Terra Cotta Soldiers.

The Terra Cotta soldiers were the guardians of the first Chinese emperor. The Terracotta Army was revealed in 1974 to the eastern side of Xi’an in Shaanxi province of china. The site of the excavations is considered as a sensational archeological discovery. In 1987, UNESCO listed the site as among the world cultural heritages. Qin Shi Huang began constructing his mausoleum upon risingto the throne in 246 BC. It took approximately 11 years to complete the mausoleum. It is hypothesized that numerous buried sacrificial objects and treasures accompanied Qin Shi Huang in the after life. Some peasants discovered some pottery asthey dug a well near the royal mausoleum.

Sermon on the Mount. 

The Sermon on the Mount was a teaching that was given by Jesus, a 1stcentury Judean prophet. In the sermon, the concentrated on the Law of Moses, this is an earlier authorized code which entailed divinely motivated moral guidance.  Its significance derives from its content as well as the status of Jesus. In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus highlights the scriptures that grant the moral basis for Judaism, namely the Ten Commandments. Through it,Jesus establishes that these were foundational for transformation to Christianity. In regard to Christians, they believe that Jesus is God in the flesh, thus; his words are exceedingly significant.

Five Pillars of Islam.

The Five Pillars of Islam form the establishment of Muslim life. The first pillar focuses on belief or faith in God’s Oneness and the irrevocability of Muhammad’s prophet hood. The second pillar focuses on the establishment of the every day prayers. The third pillar focuses on concern for as well as almsgiving to the disadvantaged. The fourth pillar focuses on self-purification by means of fasting. Finally, the fifth pillar focuses on the pilgrimage to Makkah for the believers who are able.


The divide between Sunnis and Shite’s began almost immediately following the demise of Prophet Mohammed. The Sunnis supposethatProphet Mohammed’s son-in-law Hazrat Ali was the final of the truly guided successors (caliphs) to Mohammed. The Sunnis do not acknowledge that there would be successors to Prophet Mohammed. While on the other hand, the Shiites suppose that Hazrat Ali was the only caliph and all upcoming successors ought to originate through his lineage. In the present day, there are centraldisparities between the two foremost groups in Islam.


A caliphate refers to the traditional Islamic structure of government, controlled by a caliph, who would be either elected or appointed. The caliph is considered to be the political head of all Muslims. The caliphate in addition includes a shura, a body comparable to a parliament. The shura represents the people’s will and may vote for and/or counsel the caliph. Despite the fact that ideally and originally, in the opinion of some, the caliphateis a unique institution that bonds all Muslims under its canon. There have been contemporaneous and even rival caliphates at severaltimes in history. The caliphate as an institution was anticipated to bear the legacy of the authority of Prophet Mohammed. Some politically influential Islamic entities all over history, as well as the Ottoman Empire, are regarded as caliphate incarnations.


Originally, serfdom was a European system of labor which prevailed during in the middleages with rural workers. The laborers were regarded and labeled as serfs. The term originates comes from the Latin phrase, servus, means slave.Serfdom prevailed in history since the 900’s up to the mid 1800’s. Slavery was acceptable, and often necessary in numerous ancient civilizations. The Mesopotamian society provides an example of the prevalence of slavery in the ancient epoch.  Ancient Greece extensively utilized the slavery system.


The 1099 conquest of Jerusalem by the crusaders is regarded by several scholars as the genesis of the millennial conflict between the West and Islam. Some Islamic scholars hold responsible the Crusades for distracting five centuries of serene coexistence elapsed prior to political events as well as an imposing papal power-play resulted in centuries of Holy Wars between Christendom and Islam. This has resulted in a lasting legacy of distrust and misunderstanding. On the other hand, the Crusades started following Islamic Jihad of five centuries that had annihilated and conquered, or forcibly transformed, approximately two thirds of the former Christian world. Following the 638 Islamic defeat of Jerusalem, Christian pilgrims were massacred, harassed, and in the 8th century, sixty Amoriem Christian pilgrims were crucified.

The Bubonic Plague.

An outbreak of the lethal Bubonic plague took place in China in early 1330s. The bubonic plague principally affects rodents, although fleas may transmit the infection to human beings. Once humans are infected, the infection spreads very rapidly. China at that time, was one of the world’s busiest trading nations, and consequently, the outbreak of the plague in China was imminent. In 1347, a number of merchant ships from Italy returned from a voyage to the Black Sea, which was a key link in trade with China. As the ships arrived in Sicily, countless of the people on board were dying as a result of the plague. Even though there were numerous contending theories regarding the etiology of the Bubonic plague, it has been categorically proven by means of ancient DNA analysis from the plague victims that the pathogen that was responsible is the Yersinia pestis bacterium.


The Mongol way of life is fundamentally nomadic and closely associated with the ways of animals. The customs of the Mongols live on in spite of urbanization. Even in the metropolitan areas, the majority of Mongolians continue to live in huge, white felt tents.  These tents have a common layout, whereby the door at all times faces southwards. On the reverse wall, there is always the family altar, the holds Buddhist images, suitcases, and family photos. The Mongol epoch in China is memorized primarily for Khubilai Khan’s rule. At this time, the people experienced a golden era in the Yuan dynasty, which was ruled by the Mongols.




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