This paper posits to investigate the influence of Islam in the workplace. The study explores the relationship between organizational commitment and Islamic Human Resource Management (IHRM). The variables in Islamic HRM would entail aspects of the compensation system, performance appraisal, selection as well as recruitment. With the founding of Islamic banking as well as management, there is an increase in efforts for investigating the extent to which practice or the application of Islamic guidelines and principles at the workplace would influence employee behaviors and attitudes. Several Muslim scholars have advocated for a long period of time that effective application and adherence of Islamic guidelines and principles in Human Resource Management (HRM) would positively strengthen the workforce and produce a synergy of dedication, productivity, and quality at workplaces (Faridi, 2008).
Islamic Human Resource Management Principles
Since Islamic banking provides banking operations based on Shariah, it is definitely rational to expect that these organizations would instill Islamic values in their HRM policies and practices. Studies are required to investigate how regular everyday life transactions, responsibility employees and accountability to Allah (SWT) may become a source of extremely competitive human resources. Islam is alleged to focus on the realistic facets of life while emphasizing the spiritual and humanistic needs. Even though Islamic HRM practices appear comparable to the Western HRM, nevertheless, a significant disparity exists. Every requirement in IHRM practices are founded on the Quran, as well as the adages of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). This guarantee is especially fundamental for organizations working in harmony with the Islamic shariah. It is necessary to mention that Islamic banking is founded on trust based on this honest promise, which must be entirely complied with. The nonexistence of this promise would hamper the hypothetical relationship between IHRM and organizational commitment (Ali, 2010).
Islamic HRM practices are hardly ever highlighted in human resource management literature, therefore, it is the responsibility of Muslim executives in Islamic organizations to affect the Islamic approach in the management of employees. The Holy Quran, as well as Hadith, forms the basis for the Islamic law (Shariah) as well as norms for humankind. The Shariah, as an integral component of revelation, is a guide in regard to all human activity covering all aspects of political, social, economic, and cultural life. The Holy Quran as well as Hadith form foundations of qualitative and sound values, concepts, moral standards as well as fundamental guides for excellent and strong harmonious interactions in HRM practices. Scientific management techniques that aim at putting emphasis on maximum output, are unpopular with and reviled by, employees (Hashim, 2010). These employees sometimes feel they are being exploited by the management by using them dishonestly to enhance output with no corresponding increase in compensation.
According to Islamic HRM, all issues that deal with human resources are accorded substantial attention since the foundation of Islam (Weir & Ali, 2005). Islamic law is impartial, since it preaches justice and fairness in all activities among humanity, without prejudice, irrespective of position or status between counter-parties in contracts or agreements. There is no preconception in Islam in regard to the treatment of employees over the employer or the employer over employees. This is because Islam pursues the path of righteousness and justice and therefore, calls for all of humanity to likewise live in dignity and abundance in order to guarantee stability and peace.
Organizational Commitment and Islamic HRM Practices
Several HRM concerns in organizations bear their fundamentals in religion. Religions are normally regarded as specific systems of worship, belief, and conduct. Nevertheless, Islam denotes religion as a way of life and social order which endeavors at creating a distinctive personality and a distinctive culture for the society. The impact of the practices of Islamic human resources management on organizational results, for instance, organizational commitment, entails the development of a person’s abilities as well as attitudes contribution towards the organization’s interests. From the Islamic point of view, the Holy Quran frequently reminds of justice and honesty in trade and demands an equitable as well as a fair distribution of prosperity in society. Employees with complete commitment will be loyal to their jobs as well as to the organization. Weir and Ali (2009) consider organizational commitment as a practice which entails loyalty to the employer, for the sake of the organization’s benefaction as well as success. A committed employee regards it as morally correct to stay in the organization, in spite of how much status satisfaction or enhancement the organization provides him over the years.
In Islam, there is no severance between religious and worldly facets of life. The Quran instructs the truthful towards commitment and involvement to work and not permit corrupt work behavior like laziness, begging, waste of time as well as involvement in unproductive activity
The Prophet (P.B.U.H) declared four issues as an absolute departure of the thinking at that point in time. The first concern is he declared work as the highest form of worship to God. Secondly, he recognized that work is not legitimate if it is not executed to the best capability. Thirdly, work has societal dimension and meaning and provides benefit to people. Fourth, he supported trade and active participation in business (Hashim, 2010).
It is also essential to mention that, studies relating to work ethics have gained considerable interest in current years. This has been largely influenced by the failures of foremost corporations like WorldCom and Enron. Essentially, these studies rely on the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) as promoted by Max Weber. This is notwithstanding the influence of Protestantism as well as PWE on economic development in western nations (Weir & Ali, 2009). Islam, for instance, has its own conception of ethics that are obtained from the Qur’an as well as Sunnah. Islam grants the ideological basis for a variety of individual attributes that support economic development. In fact, Ali (2010) notes that the employment of Islamic ethics resulted in the Muslims’ advancement in the golden ages in the 8th until the 14th century.
On the other hand, little is known in relation to Islamic work ethics (IWE). Up to now, there are just a few types of research that have explored IWE. For case in point, Hashim, (2010) studied the moderating result of the Islamic work ethics on the dealings between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study utilized 425 Muslim workers in several firms in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The outcome of the study demonstrated that IWE directly influenced both job satisfaction and organizational commitment and that it also moderated the association among these constructs.
Islamic work ethic stands for the fulfillment of life and considers business motives as a priority of life. Consequently, the employees who believe in Islam and pursue Islamic ethics have a propensity to be increasingly satisfied with their jobs. Such employees are also increasingly committed to the organization. As a result, they demonstrate low intentions to depart from the organization. It ought to be noted that, the role of IWE on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, as well as turnover intent is yet to receive enough attention in the literature as well as research. This is the case, especially, in the context of Islamic financial institutions.
Ali, J. (2010). Scaling Islamic Work Ethic. Social Psychology Journal, 128 (5), 5-8.
Faridi, F. (2008). Islamic Principles in Business Organization & Management. New Delhi: Qazi Publishers.
Hashim, J. (2010). Islamic Revival in HRM Practices among Select Islamic Organizations in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Islamic & Middle Eastern Finance, 6 (3): 4-6.
Weir, H. & Ali, A. (2009). Islamic Perspective on Management & Organization. Journal of Spirituality, Religion & Management, 3(2), 10-15.
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