Among the various aspects of the Cold War that existed, the main ones Eisenhower attempted to counter were the military (arms race) and technological (space race) advancements made by the Soviets. The launching of the two satellites to first orbit the earth (Sputnik I and Sputnik II) by the Soviet Union was a show of weaknesses in the American educational system and prompted Eisenhower to raise federal expenditure on education. It also pushed Congress and Eisenhower to pass the National Defense Education Act (1958) that approved grants to allow schools to develop strong courses for ‘hard’ subjects such as languages, mathematics and the sciences. This act also enabled millions of U.S. Dollars to be provided in National Defense Student Loans for college students allowing them to pursue courses in the sciences and modern foreign languages (Berkin, Miller, & Cherry 821).
Eisenhower was well qualified to determine America’s foreign policy since he had broad military experience that included his years as commander of NATO. He introduced a new policy he termed the New Look which focused on development of numerous strategic and technical nuclear weapons with an overall reduction in the size of the military, aiming to protect America’s global interests by threatening massive retaliation using these atomic weapons to any communist aggression (Berkin et al 822). This was coupled with another policy called brinkmanship, which was the impression America wanted to create that it was willing to push itself to the brink of war thus forcing the opposition to back down (Berkin et al 823). This was the policy he used to force the North Koreans and the Chinese to agree to a truce to the Korean War; through various channels he suggested to the parties involved that he was willing to use nuclear aggression to end the war. In order to contain the Soviet threat, Eisenhower’s government formulated a “three-way system” to attack China and the USSR if need be. This included an intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missile system and introduction of a new bomber jet, the B-47 and the high-altitude jet U-2 to spy on the Soviet Union (Berkin et al 828).
The blacks had suffered for a decade after the Second World War which was especially exhibited by the children who had to face angry crowds of whites in schools. This amounted to the second wave of the black movement that was meant to fight for the rights of blacks. Martin Luther King Jr. was a leader in this civil rights movement and was seen as a role model by many youths. They grew up with the notion that they were as good as the whites and were entitled to equal opportunities. The black youths engaged in protest which put Martin Luther King Jr. on the spotlight. He knew that the only way to gain success is to be involved in non-violent protests. His idea as discussed by Berkin et al was to unite the blacks in the protests without aggression so as to have equal rights with the whites (840).
The protests led by the youth were different from those led by people in the fifties. The youth had nothing to loose because they had no families or jobs to protect and this was what made this protest successful. The events that took place in the last decade including desegregation in schools were the reasons behind their actions (Berkin et al 839). The victories experienced in Montgomery and Little Rock, their leaders including Martin Luther King Jr. as well as the risk taken by those who came before them in the fifties inspired this new generation.
Martin Luther including other blacks chose to walk to Montgomery which was about fifty miles instead of riding in segregated buses. This boycott made it clear that unless discrimination of blacks in the buses would stop, then they would not use the buses as their means of transport. In Little Rock, the black children there were brave to whatever discrimination came their way because they were already used to that kind of treatment. Past experiences as explored by Berkin et al are what inspired the actions in both Montgomery and Little Rock (841).
Berkin, Carol., Miller, Christopher., & Cherry, Robert. Making American: A History of the United States since 1865, Volume II. Florence: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
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